Welsh Language and Culture 2

The Welsh language has survived the Roman, Norman and British Empires. It also has the oldest literary tradition in Europe apart from Greek and Latin. This course will introduce the grammar and vocabulary of the Welsh language, and also introduce the literature and history of Wales from their first beginnings.


  • Tutor supplied material. The most useful dictionary for learners is The Pocket Modern Welsh Dictionary by Gareth King.


  • Williams, Gwyn A., The Welsh in Their History, Groom/Helm, 1982
  • Morris, Jan, The Matter of Wales, Penguin, 1986
  • Davies, John, A History of Wales, Allen Lane/ The Penguin Press, 1990
  • Eames, Marion, A Private Language? A Dip into Welsh Literature, Beekman Publishers


  • Lesson 1: Demonstratives, adverbs of place, relative forms of bod, Welsh place names in England and Scotland
  • Lesson 2: Relative forms of bod, possessive pronouns, dependent clauses (indirect speech) Welsh language history 2
  • Lesson 3: Possessive pronouns, dependent clauses, words that do not mutate, CALON LÂN, Elizabeth I and the survival of the Welsh language
  • Lesson 4: Dependent clauses, Iolo Morgannwg,
  • Lesson 5: Uses of cael, passive infinities, PWY SY’N DŴAD DROS Y BRYN?, The Royal National Eisteddfod
  • Lesson 6: Who? What? CLYCHAU CANTRE’R GWAELOD, Gruffydd Jones, Llanddowror
  • Lesson 7: Where? When? expressing obligation, reflexive verbs, MI WELAIS JAC Y DO, 19th century literature
  • Lesson 8: Why? How? DAU GI BACH, 20th century literature
  • Lesson 9: Comparison and position of adjectives, SALI MALI, y Wladfa


By the end of this course, students should be able to:

  1. Develop an understanding of Welsh sentence structure
  2. Increase Welsh vocabulary
  3. Understand significant aspects of Welsh history and culture
  4. Appreciate the Welsh musical tradition

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