The Night of the Long Knives: Operation Hummingbird

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The Night of the Long Knives: Operation Hummingbird

<p>In June 1934, Hitler ordered the massacre of hundreds of brown shirted Nazi party storm troopers and their SA leader Ernst Roehm demonstrating his ruthlessness in the early years of the regime.

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In June 1934, Hitler ordered the massacre of hundreds of brown shirted Nazi party storm troopers and their SA leader Ernst Roehm demonstrating his ruthlessness in the early years of the regime. Historians regard Operation Hummingbird as a classic example of the effective elimination of perceived enemies and consolidation of power. Hitler sacrificed Roehm his old comrade in arms for political expediency. The army and the SS prevailed but the SA did not.


SUGGESTED READING

  • Richard Evans, The Third Reich in Power, Penguin 2005
  • Ian Kershaw, Hitler, Myth, Image and Reality in the Third Reich, OUP 2001
  • William Shirer, The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich, Redwood, 1986
  • Paul Maracain, The Night of the Long Knives, 48 Hours that Changed the History of the World, Lyons Press,2004


COURSE OUTLINE

  • Origins of the Nazi party and its part militia 1920-1933
  • Nazi Germany 1933-1934 and role of the SA Storm Troopers and Ernst Roehm
  • Conflict between the German army and the SA and Hitler’s determination to resolve the conflict
  • Operation Hummingbird in June 1934 and its consequences of the massacre for Nazi Germany
  • Evaluations by historians of the significance of the event


PLANNED LEARNING OUTCOMES
By the end of this course, students should be able to:

  1. Explain the main events and personnel involved in the political massacre in 1934
  2. Describe the benefits for Hitler and the Nazi government
  3. Consider the motivations for the massacre
  4. Evaluate both contemporary and later comments on the event